Mini Kiwi

Startside Opp Bringebær Eple Hageblåbær Jordbær Mini Kiwi Plomme Søtkirsebær

For nokre år sidan kjøpte me fire planter med mini Kiwi. Det stod: Bayern Kiwi og Actindia arguta 'Weiki' żeńska på lappen som følgde med.

Eg har samla litt informasjon som eg har funne og sett saman med bilete eg har teke av plantene.

Mini Kiwi Actinidia arguta 'Weikì'

    Vanleg namn:               Bower Actinidia, Tara Vine 'Weiki'
    Dekorativ form:            eteleg frukt, bladverk
    Blomstringsmånad:      juni
    Vintergrøn:                    nei
    Plantehøgd:                  8 meter
    Årleg vekst:                  1-3 meter
    Herdig mot frost:          sone 5-8

 

Ho blome

Klatreplante (opp til 4-8m høg) med frukt på hoplanten; treng ein hannplante for pollinerast slik at den kan bere frukt. Blomstring i juni.
For å kunne bære frukt treng planten årleg 150 dagar utan frost.
Bæra haustast i oktober. Haustar ein umoden frukt, vil dei bli mjuke og modnast om dei lagrast i ein pose/sekk saman med frukt som produserer etylen (til dømes eple) og lagrast i romtemperatur.
Planten byrjar å bere frukt i tredje eller fjerde året etter planting. Frukta er omkring 3 cm lang, grøn - blomen er raudleg/brun. Attraktiv plante for sitt prydelege bladverk - mørke grøn, litt skinande blad med raud bladstilk.
 

Han blome

Svært interessant hannplante som vil pryde einkvar hage. Ein god bestøvar - det er nok å plante ein hannplante pr. 6-8 hoplantar.
Attraktiv plante for sitt prydelege bladverk - mørke grøn, litt skinande blad med raud bladstilk.
 

Denne varianten toler frost opp til - 30°C.
Skjering av planten er best om hausten eller vinteren (før den byrjar å spire), eller om sommaren før dei nye skota delvis har byrja å bli tjukke og treaktige, elles vil planten blø sevje.

 

Dei to neste "artiklane" har eg funne på Internett:

HARDY KIWIFRUIT

B/W sketch

Actinidia arguta

Actinidiaceae

Common Names: Hardy Kiwi, Bower Vine, Dessert Kiwi, Cocktail Kiwi, Tara Vine, Yang-tao.

Related Species: Chinese Egg Gooseberry (Actinidia coriacea), Kiwifruit (A. deliciosa), Super-hardy Kiwi (A. kolomikta), Red Kiwi (A. melanandra), Silver Vine (A. polygama), Purple Kiwi (A. purpurea).

Origin: The hardy kiwi is native to northern China, Korea, Siberia and possibly Japan.

Adaptation: The plants need a long growing season (about 150 frost-free days) which will not be hampered by late winter or early autumn freezes. When fully dormant, they can withstand temperatures to about -25° F (and perhaps a bit lower.) However they must acclimate to cold slowly and any sudden plunge in temperature may cause trunk splitting and subsequent damage to the vine. All cultivars need a certain period of winter chilling and their needs vary, dependent upon cultivar, however, the exact amounts needed has not yet been established. To date, all cultivars that have been grown in both high chill and low chill areas have produced equally well. Late winter freezing temperatures will kill any exposed buds. The plants can be successfully grown in large containers.

DESCRIPTION

Growth Habit: In the forests where it is native, it is a climbing vine (liana), sometimes climbing one hundred feet high into trees. In cultivation it is more well-behaved but must be supported by a trellising system. The plant has a more delicate appearance than regular kiwifruit.

Foliage: Leaves are elongated and generally 2 to 5 inches long and attached to the stem on red petioles. They are usually serrated and far less leathery and fuzzy than regular kiwifruit.

Flowers: The flowers are about one-half inch in diameter, white to cream colored, somewhat fragrant, and produced as singlets to triplets in the leaf axiles. Flowering period extends over several weeks from early May to June, depending on climatic conditions. Plants are dioecious, having male and female flowers on separate plants, thus needing plants of both sexes to produce crops. However, self-fruiting females are known to exist.

Fruit: The fruit are generally green, fuzzless, and the size of grapes. Cut open, they look much like regular kiwifruit with its small black seeds, emerald green color, and typical rayed pattern. Although typically green in both the skin and flesh, some cultivars have various amount of red, either in the skin, flesh or both. Hardy kiwifruits are generally sweeter than regular kiwifruit. Sugar levels vary, ranging from 14% (as with kiwifruit) up to 29%.

Additional differences between cultivars can include perceived aroma of the fruit as well as bitterness of the skin. Commercial cultivation has begun for this crop in many regions of the United States due to the plants ability to grow in harsher climates than the kiwifruit.

CULTURE

Location: The vines will tolerate some shade but prefer a sunny location where they can ramble across some type of trellising system. They should have some protection from strong winds

Site Preparation: Hardy kiwi plants need a substantial trellis, patio cover, or other permanent place to grow upon. For the trellis system, either a single wire or T-bar system can be installed. Both have a 4 inch by 4 inch redwood post of 8 feet. For the T-bar, a 2 inch by 6 inch crossarm about 4 feet long is bolted in place. Bury the post 2 feet into the ground and cement in if at all possible. At each end of the system, a cemented deadman should be in place. Run wires across the posts and anchor tautly to the deadman. When using a patio cover, no extra trellising needs to be in place. Simply run the plant up a corner post to the top and allow the plant to then form a spoke work of shoots which would resemble an umbrella.

Soils: Hardy kiwi prefer well-drained, somewhat acid (pH 5 - 6.5) soils. Neutral soils are acceptable but the leaves may show nitrogen deficiency when the soils become too basic. The plants will not tolerate salty soils.

Irrigation: Hardy kiwi plants need large volumes of water during the entire growing season but must also be in well-drained soils. Watering regularly in the heat of the summer is a must. Never allow a plant to undergo drought stress. Symptoms of drought stress are drooping leaves, browning of the leaves around the edges, and complete defoliation with regrowth of new shoots when the stress is continuous. More plants probably die from water related problems than any other reason.

Fertilization: Based on work done on the regular kiwifruit, hardy kiwi plants are heavy nitrogen feeders which should be applied in abundance during the first half of the growing season. Late season applications of nitrogen will enhance fruit size but are discouraged as fruit then tends to store poorly. In basic soils, a citrus and avocado tree fertilizer should be broadcast about the vine and watered in well in early March. Follow up the initial fertilizing by supplemental additions to early summer. In other areas, use a high nitrogen fertilizer which contains trace elements unless it is known that the particular soil is deficient in another nutrient. Mulching with manures and/or straws is very beneficial. However, do not put the mulch directly in contact with the vine as crown rot will occur.

Pruning: For best fruit production, pruning in the winter is a must. All pruning techniques are usually based on a "cane replacement" and differ only based on the trellising method used. Kiwi vines need to be supported and this is usually done in one of three ways: single wire, 3-5 wire on a T-bar system, or onto a patio cover. In all cases, one stem is trained up to a wire at six feet and then allowed to grow along the wire. When growth ends in a "pig-tailing" of the shoot, it is cut behind the entanglement and new a shoot allowed to grow from a leaf base. After two years multiple shoots will now emerge from the lateral mainline. During the growing season, each lateral cane will send out a new shoot about 1/3 of the way from its own starting point. The next winter, prune off the older cane at the point that it connects with last summers new shoot. This process repeats itself every year.

Propagation: In areas where the regular kiwifruit will grow, scions of the hardy kiwi may be grafted directly onto kiwifruit rootstock. Otherwise, one must either root their own from hardwood or greenwood cuttings or buy established plants.

Pests and diseases: Plants are relatively free from problems, possibly due to their lack of heavy planting into areas so that pests begin to take a liking to the leaves, trunk, or roots. One odd problem is the fact that the trunks have a catnip-like aroma which cats love to rub against. When plants are small, this can be a problem as they can rub off any new shoots which emerge in the spring. Garden snails can also be a problem on younger plantings. Other pests include deer that browse on the leaves and gophers that attack the roots. Scale insects can damage if populations build up too extensively. Greenhouse thrips may also damage the fruit.

Harvest: Ripening depends both on the cultivar grown and local climatic conditions. The Cordifolia cultivar ripens first in early September while the Anna (Ananasnaja) may need to wait until late October/early November before it sweetens to its best. Hardy kiwifruits drop or come off easily when they are ripe. Usually they are picked at the mature-ripe stage and allowed to ripen off of the vine as is done with kiwifruit.

CULTIVARS

Females

Many cultivars are known although no real attempt has been yet made to determine the best for specific climates or regions. The following is a partial listing of cultivars:
bulletAnanasnaja (Anna)
bulletCordifolia
bulletDumbarton Oaks
bulletGeneva
bulletIssai (2 distinct self-fruitful cultivars from Japan)
bulletKen's Red
bulletMichigan State
bullet119-40B (Claimed self-fruitful)
bulletRed Princess
bulletSeedling selections by Professor Meader
bullet74 Series

Males

Various males are known but no extensive work has been done to determine pollen count or viability, flowering times, or vigorousness. If available, pollen from the regular kiwifruit works well but the seed resulting is usually sterile.

FURTHER READING

bulletReich, Lee. Uncommon Fruits Worthy of Attention. Addison-Wesley, 1991. pp 121-138.
See Index of CRFG Publications, 1969 - 1989 and annual indexes of Fruit Gardener for additional articles on the hardy kiwifruit.

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Here is the list of additional CRFG Fruit Facts.

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© Copyright 1996, California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc.
Questions or comments? Contact us.
Kiwifruit

Revised 11/98 HIL-208

 
Charles M. Mainland
Extension Horticultural Specialist
Department of Horticultural Science
 

History

The kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) is a large, woody, deciduous vine native to the Yangtze Valley of China. Seeds from China were taken to New Zealand and planted in 1906. Plants developing from these seeds first fruited in 1910. Commercial planting began in New Zealand in about 1940 and by 1970 there were 900 acres. Commercial planting in California began in the late 1960s. From 50 acres in 1970, the industry in California has grown to more than 7,000 acres in 1992. Acreage in 1998 was reported as 5,200 by the California Kiwifruit Commission. In 1974 kiwifruit became the internationally accepted name, replacing Chinese gooseberry and kiwi.

In the eastern United States, kiwifruit vines have fruited at Virginia Beach, Virginia, and at several locations in South Carolina. The first commercial shipments began in 1980 from a planting in South Carolina located about 30 miles north of Augusta, Georgia. In North Carolina, several vines were planted at a research farm near Raleigh in the early 1970s, but these did not survive the first winter. A 1979 planting at the Horticultural Crops Research Station near Wilmington was severely damaged when the temperature dropped to 2 oF in early March of 1980. Almost half of the vines were completely killed, and the other half were killed to the ground. Surviving plants sprouted from below the soil line and slowly reestablished vine growth in 1980. No vine damage occurred in the winter of 1980 to 1981. Vine vigor increased during the summer of 1981, but severe trunk and arm cracking occurred in January, 1982, following a temperature of 5 oF. Surviving vines only fruited twice in the following 9 years. Severe winter damage occurred about once every three years. As a result of poor survival and fruiting, the vines were removed in the fall of 1991.

Reducing Winter Damage
Several techniques, including planting on the north side of a building and piling pine straw around the base of the plant in the fall, have reduced damage. Damage is usually the most severe on the lower 18 inches of the trunk. If this area is not warmed by afternoon sun or is protected by pine straw prior to a freezing night, less damage has been observed. Another alternative is to plant a species of kiwifruit that is more winter hardy. A. arguta is the most common of the winter hardy species that are offered by commercial propagators.

Potential in North Carolina
Based on experience the past 10 years, there is little reason to be optimistic about successful commercial production. However, the more positive results in several Virginia and South Carolina locations provide sufficient encouragement to continue kiwifruit trials on a limited scale. Vine establishment during years with less severe winters combined with increased cold tolerance of older vines may account for the success in Virginia and South Carolina. The information and suggestions in this leaflet were gathered from New Zealand, California, Virginia, and South Carolina sources. The purpose of the information is to provide a basis for establishing trial plantings and not as tried and proven recommendations for kiwifruit production in North Carolina.

Fruit and Vine Characteristics
A. deliciosa kiwifruit is about the size and shape of a large hen's egg with a hairy, dull-brown exterior. Inside, the flesh is emerald green with rows of black, edible seeds. Fruit texture is similar to strawberry and the flavor resembles a blend of strawberry and pineapple. Vines are very vigorous. Large, thick leaves combined with a fruit crop that may exceed 14,000 lb per acre contribute to a very heavy trellis load. The stress on the trellis is increased when the large, velvety leaves are wet or as wind whips the dense vines and leaves.

The winter-hardy A. arguta kiwifruit is much smaller in size. Few are larger than a man's thumb. Instead of the hairy skin, the A. arguta has a smooth skin. From our experience, the fruit must be soft-ripe at harvest and will not ripen if picked while still hard. Storage life of the fruit is short. The small fruit size, soft fruit and short storage life seem to make A. arguta of limited commercial potential. However, a hardy kiwi is being grown and marketed in Oregon as "baby kiwi." It is called "Ananasnaya" or sometimes shortened to "Anna." Development was in Russsia about 60 years ago with parentage thought to be a combination of A. arguta and A kolomikta. Fruit has a smooth surface, like A. arguta and interior color, texture and flavor similar to A deliciosa. The size is similar to that of a grape. Ananasnaya may be worthy of trial in North Carolina.

Adaptation

Classified as a subtropical plant, A. deliciosa kiwifruit will not tolerate winter temperatures much lower than 10 oF. When the winter minimum temperatures decline gradually over a number of weeks with a few warm days interspersed, well hardened, mature vines have survived temperatures approaching 0 oF with little damage. However, in the fluctuating temperatures of North Carolina, damage often occurs just below freezing. The long growing season required for fruit to mature can also limit production. A frost free period of at least 220 days is required for adequate fruit ripening. In southeastern North Carolina, the vines can be expected to leaf in mid to late March and flower in mid May. Fruit should be sufficiently mature for harvest in late October or early November. Temperatures lower than 29 oF between leafing and harvest can damage the leaves, blossoms and fruit. If new growth is damaged in the spring before blossoms develop, no blossoming will occur. A. arguta has been reported to tolerate winter temperatures as low as -25 oF, but freeze damage to new growth in the spring is similar to the damage described for A. deliciosa. A. arguta fruit begins ripening in mid-August in southeastern North Carolina.

Culture

Kiwifruit plantings can be handled much like muscadine grapes, however, they are much more subject to wind damage, root-knot nematodes and require more supplemental irrigation than muscadine grapes. Many soil types are suitable, provided they are well drained. The soil pH should be adjusted to 6.0 to 6.5 and nematodes controlled before planting.

Planting &emdash; Dormant plants from a nursery can be planted in the spring after there is little chance of freezing weather. Plant to the same depth as the plants grew in the nursery. After planting, prune the plant back to a single, healthy shoot 6 to 12 inches long.

Training and Trellising &emdash; See North Carolina Cooperative Extension Circular AG-94, Muscadine Grape Production Guide for North Carolina, for training and trellising systems. The single wire, Munson double wire, or overhead trellis can be used. Several modifications to the grape trellis systems should improve production and make management easier. For ease of harvest, the wires on either a single or double wire system should be at least 6 ft above the ground. Cross arms on the double wire system should be 5 ft to 6 ft long. Solid cross arms made from treated 2- to 6-inch lumber attached to a treated post with a top diameter of at least 4 inches should support the vines if large, well-braced end posts are used.

Because kiwifruit vines are more vigorous than muscadine grape vines, more space should be allowed between rows. On a single wire the spacing should be 10 ft to 12 ft and with the double wire 15 ft to 16 ft. The width of equipment to be used in the planting should influence row spacing. Space vines 18 ft to 20 ft apart in the row.

After growth begins on newly set plants, select a strongly growing shoot as the main leader to carry the vine up to the wire. Remove side shoots at least once a week for maximum growth of the main shoot. A bamboo stake is a convenient support for training the vine up to the wire. Follow the training instructions for muscadine grapes.

Pruning &emdash; With weekly attention to training, shoots that will develop into the permanent arms will extend the length of the wire in 1 to 2 years. After single shoots extend the length of the wires, side branches are allowed to grow from the arm. Mixed buds that produce both flowers and shoot growth develop in the leaf axils of the side branches. The following spring these buds develop into new shoots with flowers at the first 3 to 6 nodes. Side shoots are removed after fruiting for 1 or 2 years and replaced by new side shoots from the arm. Both summer and winter pruning are required to maintain a balance between vine growth and profitable fruit production. Excessive vine growth is removed during the growing season to keep the vines open and avoid shading of the fruiting wood. If summer pruning is neglected, the fruit will be smaller, of poorer quality and winter pruning will take considerably more time. During the winter pruning, remove shoots back to the arm that has fruited for 2 seasons. Leave 2 buds beyond where fruit was borne. Shoots that originated from the arm the previous year should be cut back to a length of about 12 inches.

Pollination and Varieties &emdash; A kiwifruit vine produces either male or female flowers. Plants of both sexes are essential for fruit production and they must flower at the same time to ensure pollination. Male vines are usually spaced every third vine in every third row and represent 10% of the planting. In California, 3 to 4 hives of honeybees are provided per acre.

Varieties grown in New Zealand are Abbott, Allison, Bruno, Hayward, and Monty. Large fruit size and excellent keeping quality are responsible for Hayward becoming the predominant commercial variety. The Chico or Chico Hayward plants available from U.S. nurseries are the same as New Zealand Hayward or a selection that is almost identical. Hayward females are successfully pollinated by Chico-male, Matua or Tomori in California. For earlier flowering female varieties such as Abbott, Allison and Bruno, the male variety Matua is a better choice.

Fertilization &emdash; Kiwifruit respond to high rates of fertilizer application. In California, 150 lb of nitrogen per acre is recommended on mature vines. New Zealand recommendations go as high as 200 lb of nitrogen per acre. Only nitrogen is generally applied in California, but a complete fertilizer with a ratio of about 3-1-2 is recommended.

On sandy soils in North Carolina, use repeated applications of small amounts of fertilizer to avoid injury. Several weeks after planting when rain or irrigation has thoroughly settled the soil around the roots, begin fertilizer application. Apply 1 oz of a complete fertilizer such as 10-10-10 uniformly within a circle 12 inches from the plant. Avoid concentrations of fertilizer around the plant base. Repeat these applications after 4 inches of rain or irrigation until mid June. Later applications could increase winter damage by causing the plant to continue growth late in the season. During the second growing season, begin applications in early March following the first year schedule, but increase the rate to 2 oz per vine and increase the diameter of the application circle to 18 inches. At alternate applications, 2 oz of calcium nitrate or 1 oz of ammonium nitrate can be substituted for the 2 oz of 10-10-10. During the third year, follow the second year schedule but increase the rate to 1/4 to 1/2 lb per vine of 10-10-10, calcium nitrate or ammonium nitrate at each application within a 24- to 36-inch circle around the vine. From the fourth year on, broadcast the fertilizer over the entire area, increasing the amount gradually as production increases. In the fourth year, 200 lb per acre of 10-10-10 in early March, followed by 100 lb per acre of ammonium nitrate in early May and mid June should stimulate adequate plant vigor without contributing to increased susceptibility to winter damage. Rates can be increased or decreased in subsequent years, depending on vine vigor.

Irrigation &emdash; In California, vines are generally irrigated weekly during the first three growing seasons. A combination of 1 inch to 11/2 inches per week of natural rainfall and irrigation during the growing season would be desirable in North Carolina.

Sprinkler irrigation offers the potential for protecting from freeze damage the tender new growth in the spring and fruit in the fall as well as providing soil moisture.

Weed Control &emdash; Permanent sod is often maintained between plant rows. Frequent mowing reduces competition with the vines. Competition for moisture and fertilizer is further reduced by destroying all vegetation in a 4- to 6-ft band under the vines with a herbicide or shallow cultivation. Deep cultivation can seriously damage the shallow, fleshy roots.

Pests &emdash; Few serious insect and disease problems have been encountered by kiwifruit

  1. growers. Root-knot nematodes have been found on the roots in all production areas as well as the trial planting in North Carolina. However, the nematodes do not seem to seriously reduce the vine vigor. If a high population exists in the soil, fumigation prior to planting may be desirable. Japanese beetles occasionally feed on the foliage, but they prefer other plants. New pests can be expected as plantings increase. Close observation of the vines increases the chance for control of a new insect or disease before serious damage occurs.

Wind Damage &emdash; Spring winds can break the tender young shoots at their point of attachment to the arm. Wind rub while the fruits enlarge and mature can cause flesh bruising and unsightly blemishes on the skin. Lombardy poplar (Populus nigra var. italica) has been used as a windbreak in New Zealand and South Carolina. Plants are spaced 16 inches to 20 inches apart around the planting and across the prevailing wind between every 4 to 6 kiwifruit rows.

Harvesting &emdash; In California, vines generally have the first commercial crop in the fourth season. Full production is reached in 8 to 12 years.

A. deliciosa fruits reach almost full size in August but are not mature enough for harvest until late October or early November. Fruit will soften following harvest when the sugar content (measured as soluble solids with a refractometer) reaches 4%, but full flavor does not develop until the sugar content reaches 6 to 8% on the vine. Starch in the fruit is converted to sugar following harvest. When the fruit is ready to eat, it should have 12 to 15% sugar.

Fruits are harvested by snapping the stem at an abscission layer at the base of the fruit. All fruit on a vine can be harvested at one time, or the largest fruit can be removed first and the smaller fruit allowed to develop more size.

Storage and Ripening &emdash; Mature A. deliciosa fruit can be stored from 4 to 6 months at 31 oF to 32 oF if protected from dehydration. Storage life is substantially reduced if ethylene evolving fruits such as apples or pears are present in storage. For maximum storage life, store kiwifruit alone. Fruit will ripen at room temperature when removed from cold storage. Ripening can be hastened by ethylene treatment. This hastened ripening can be accomplished in the home by placing kiwifruit in a plastic bag with an apple. From our experience, A. arguta must be soft at harvest. With refrigeration, the storage life is 2 to 3 weeks.

Published by

North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service

 

Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Employment and program opportunities are offered to all people regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability. North Carolina State University at Raleigh, North Carolina A&T State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and local governments cooperating.


 

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